මුල් පිටුව | බොදු පුවත් | කතුවැකිය | බෞද්ධ දර්ශනය | විශේෂාංග | වෙහෙර විහාර | ඉංග්‍රිසි ලිපි | පෙර කලාප | දායකත්ව මුදල් |


The system of Buddhist studies in Myanmar

In Myanmar today meditation centres are found very systematically functioning at the capitals of provinces, the district cities and other small towns as well as in large cities

Presently Buddhists in Myanmar is 88 per cent of the total population. In ancient times even in the third century B.C. Myanmar was called Suvannabhumi, and it was to this Suvannabhumi one of the non Buddhist missions were sent by King Asoka in the 3rd century B.C, after having conducted the third Great Buddhist Council under the chairmanship of Ven. Upsgupta Maha Moggaliputta Tissa Maha Thera of the Gupta clan.

This Buddhist mission was headed by Arahants Sona and Uttara. The earliest reference to Buddhism in Myanmar was the stupa built by the two Indian traders of Utkal (modern Orissa State on the sea coast of north-eastern India). Tapassu and Bhalluka, met the Buddha while He was in concentrative meditation in Buddha Gaya (Gaya district, Bihar State) in the seventh week after Enlightenment. The two traders en route to a trading expedition to central and western India with a fleet of caravans, passing through the district of Gaya, offered the Buddha madgu-pindika (barley roasted, powdered and made into small balls with bees’ honey) and having listened to the Dhamma discoursed to them by the Buddha, became lay disciples for the first time having said Buddham Saranam Gachchami and Dhammam Saranam Gachchami (Maha Sangha not established by then). On their request for a memento to worship, the Buddha gave them some sacred hair relics, which they enshrined and raised a small stupa in Utkal. The stupa was originally 26 feet in height and was called Shwedaqgon Pagoda. It was covered with gold plates weighing nearly 2700 tons of gold and the third stupa at Tiriyaya, near Trincomalee ancient sea port Gokanna, now called Girihanduseya.

The two Arahants Sona and Uttara preached the Bhramaja-sutta at Thaton in Myanmar. The fact that the Arahants Sona and Uttara chose this Sutta to convert the inhabitants of Suvannabhumi indicates that the people were well informed, familiar with Brahmanism that was refuted by the Buddha in this discourse. Secondly, in 1182 A.C, Maha Samgha was established in Myanmar and the monks visiting Sri Lanka obtained higher ordination on the Kelani river. The Sinhala Maha Sangha continued to grow until the time of King Dhammaceti when it completely eclipsed the existing Maramma-Sangha. The reign of King Dhammaceti deserves particular attention as an eventful period in religious intercourse between Myanmar and Sri Lanka. The best known perhaps the earliest document dealing with these relations is the set of marble inscriptions designated as the Kalyani Inscriptions set up by King Dhammaceti, also known as Ramadhipathi, King of Pegu (1472-92) A.C, at Zaingganaing western suburb of the capital city Hamsavati (Pegu) in 1476 A.C. They give the format for the correct conduct of upasampada ceremonies on ten marble slabs on both sides, which had remained up to the Second World War, partially restored by British Major R.C. Temple in 1892 after they were damaged either by the Portuguese adventurer, Philip de Brito in the 17th century or by Alompra’s soldiers in 1756 A.C. The language of the inscription in the first three stones is in Pali and the rest in Talaing language consisting translations of the Pali inscriptions.

In 1871 the fifth Great Buddhist Council was held in Myanmar. The First Council at Sattaparni caves foreground at Rajagaha under the chairmanship of Arahant Maha Kassapa and an assembly of 500 Arhants, three months after the Mahaparinirvana of the Buddha at Kusinara. Arahant Ananda rehearsed the Sutta Pitaka and Arahant Upali the Vinaya Pitaka codifying the Dhamma into Sutta and Vinaya Pitaka. Abhidhamma Pitaka was a later development.

The Second Great Buddhist Council was held 100 years after the Parinibbana of the Buddha in the capital of Vajjian Republic (the first republic of the world) in Vaishali. Some of the Vajjiputtaka tried to replace certain Vinaya rules to enable them to accept gold and other endowments. The Council was held in the Valukarama Vihara, where the Tripitaka was recited by seven hundred Arahants. This Council was held under the royal patronage of Kalasoka. In its wake the Maha Sangha divided into 14 sects and the bhikkhus left for Kashmir and had their own council, which divided Buddhism into Mahayana and the language they choose for their scriptures was Sanskrit. The holders of the original teachings of the Buddha was Magadhi/Pali. It came to be known as Sthaviravada or Theravada.

The Third Council was held 218 years after the Parinibbana of the Buddha, at Pataliputra (modern Patna, capital of Bihar State) chaired by the Ven. Upagota/Moggalliputta Mahathera, with one thousand Arahants reciting the Tripitaka for nine months. The council was held under the royal patronage of Emperor Asoka, wherein nine Buddhist missions were sent to various regions in India and also Sri Lanka and Burma. Asoka thus saw to the dawn of the Golden Age of Buddhism. The fourth Council was held in Sri Lanka, during the reign of King Vattagamani Abhaya (29 - 17 A.C,) when the king favoured the Mahayana inclined towards Abhayagiri monks, at Alulena, Matale. The Tripitaka was committed to writing for the first time by the Sri Lanka bhikkhus of the Anuradhapura Mahavihara fraternity, established by Arahant Mahinda during the reign of King Devanampiyatissa (247 - 207 B.C). The Fifth Great Buddhist Council was held in 1871 in Burma, where Pali Atthakatha and Tika were written on marble slabs. The slabs of Pali are 729 and Atthakatha and Tika were on 1774 marble slabs. totalling 2503. The library that kept those slabs is called the world’s biggest library. Today we can see them at the city of Mandalay. The Sixth Great Buddhist Council was held in Burma under Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw in 1955.

In Myanmar Viharas in villages and townships provide the studies of eleven Paritta Suttas, Kaccayana, Abhidhammataahasangha, Patimokkha (Vinaya Rules). In small towns, districts and large cities ruled by township government bhikkhus and laity study preliminary texts of Pali Atthakatha upto intermediate level. For example, Pali Grammar, Rupasiddhim Pali Abhidana (dictionary), Subhodhalankara, instructing a style of writing and Kankhsvitarani, the essence of Vinaya Rules. The Sumangalavilasiri Tika, the compendium of seven further doctrines and the Dhammapada Atthakatha, the collected works, the essence of Suttanta Pitaka also are learnt. In advanced Level Silakkanda Vagga Pali, beginning of Suttanta Pitaka, Parajika Palim the beginning of Vinaya Pitaka and the compendium of states or phenomena, the beginning of Abhidhamma Pitaka are learnt, in detail with Atthakatha and Tikas.

These three lectures are taught in the great Vihara Parivenas in every city of Myanmar with prescribed syllabi. At this stage the students who qualify at the examinations are conferred the Dhammacariya title by the government. Myanmar has a Ministry of Buddhist Religious Affairs.

In Myanmar today meditation centres are found very systematically functioning at the capitals of provinces, the district cities and other small towns as well as in large cities.

The Vipassana meditation technique which was discovered by the Buddha at the time of his Enlightenment 2559 years ago at the foot of the Sri Maha Bodhi at Buddha Gaya, plays a very significant role in Buddhism. With the decline of Buddhism in India around the 12th century Vipassana meditation too vanished. Luckily, it was preserved carefully through the ages in Burma where it was introduced in the 3rd century B. C. by Arahants Sona and Uttara. Acharya Goenka, an Indian born in Burma, having perfected the technique for 14 years re-introduced in India in 1969. In 1976, he established the Vipassana international Academy at Dhammagiri, Igatapuri, near Nasik, Maharashtra State India, the land where in 1956 millions of the under-privileged Indians (Dalits) or untouchables under the guidance of their own leader Dr. B. R. Ambedkar became Buddhists. Presently, India has only 10 million Buddhists. Of them 8 million are in Maharashtra. By now Vipassana meditation centres have been established in almost all the 29 States of India. In order to preserve and promote Vipassana meditation gifted to the Indians by Burma, another reputed Vipassana teacher Ven.Dr. Rastrapal Maha Thera founded the international Meditation Centre at Buddha Gaya. The first phase of the Global Pagoda built by the Global Vipassana Foundation, near Mumbai, capital or Maharashtra State, India has been completed. The 325 feet high Pagoda will have the largest stone dome structure in the world, with facilities for as many as 8000 meditators. In Sravasthi (Uttar Pradesh) Thai Mahaupasika Dr. Sithipol too has built a very large Vipassana meditation centre which could accommodate around 7000 meditators, with a huge standing Buddha image and a large area ideal for meditation.

In the field of composing treatises Myanmar is the flag-bearer of Pali literature. In other words, Myanmar is the leader of Pali literature. In Saddaniti, Vinayalankra Tika Ashin Munindaghosha, Buddhist era 2178). Manisaramanjusa Tika, commentary on Abhidhamma (Ashin Ariyavamsa Buddhist era 2026). Milindapanha Attaha Atthakatha, Paramatthadipani are the treatises written in Pali. They can be compared to Pali literature of Sri Lanka and India.

The Sangha population in Myanmar aggregates to more than 400,000 bhikkhus and bhikkhunis are more than 40,000 and Nikayas or sects are nine. The nine sects differ from one another according to time, region, person, and tradition but very faithful to the original Dhamma and Vinaya of Theravada Buddhism as discoursed by the Buddha in the 6th century B. C. There is only one Sangha Committee including more than 400,000 bhikkhus with voting rights.

බිනර අමාවක පෝය

බිනර අමාවක පෝය ඔක්තෝබර් 07 වනදා බ්‍රහස්පතින්දා පූර්ව භාග 3.50 ට ලබයි.
8 වනදා සිකුරාදා පූර්ව භාග 00.14 දක්වා පෝය පවතී.
සිල් සමාදන්වීම ඔක්තෝබර් 7 වනදා බ්‍රහස්පතින්දාය.

මීළඟ පෝය ඔක්තෝබර් 14

පොහෝ දින දර්ශනය

New Moonඅමාවක

ඔක්තෝබර් 07

First Quarterපුර අටවක

ඔක්තෝබර් 14

Full Moonපසෙලාස්වක

ඔක්තෝබර්  22

Second Quarterඅව අටවක

ඔක්තෝබර් 30

2010 පෝය ලබන ගෙවෙන වේලා සහ සිල් සමාදන් විය යුතු දවස

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