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මුල් පිටුව | බොදු පුවත් | කතුවැකිය | බෞද්ධ දර්ශනය | විශේෂාංග | වෙහෙර විහාර | ඉංග්‍රිසි ලිපි | පෙර කලාප | දායකත්ව මුදල් |

 

The Buddha advocates racial, religious and language pluralism

by Rohan L. Jayetilleke

Continued from last week

He even resided in his long walking tours of Magadhadesa for 40 years aggregating to around 93,000 to 1,40000 miles during the 45 years. On His long walk of 310 miles from Rajagaha (Rajgir) to Kusinara (Kasi) (present Bihar State and Uttar Pradesh) at the age of 80 taking one year for the great demise (Mahaparinirvana) He stayed at the shrines of Brahamins such as Capala Cetiya, Udena Cetiya, Gotamaka Cetiya, Sattamba Cetiya, Bahuputta Cetiya and Saradanda Cetiya which he described as agreeable (Digha Nikaya 16; Anguttara Nikaya 8:70 and Udana 6:1). Having renounced worldly life Prince Siddhartha went to the brahamin teachers of the time in Uruvela, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta and leant their doctrines and understood that their teachings only conducts one to the base consisting of nothingness and not to direct knowledge to enlightenment or fading away of dispassion. Although they offered him equal status with them in their sect, He never criticized their teachings or devalued them.

Even after attaining Buddhahood, He thought of them to teach the Dhamma He had Himself discovered but unfortunately they were dead at the time. Then only He thought of His former five associates residing at Saranath, Varanasi, having left them, when He gave up self-mortification. In fact, having despatched the first 60 Arahants the Buddha went to Senanigama, Uruvela, the home village of Sujatha who gave him, ghanapayasa which sustained him for 49 days after Enlightenment.

Thus the Buddha was the epitome of honouring teachers, gratitude to those who helped them. In fact he preached the Dhamma to the fire-worshipping (Jatilas) at Uruvela, namely, Gaya Kassapa, Nadi Kassapa, and Uruvela Kassapa and their thousand followers, who then entered the order and another fifty wayward youngmen who too entered the Order and proceeded to Gijjakuta (Rajgir) where he had met King Bimbisara, when he was sojourning there having renounced houseld life and king extracting a promise from the prince that He visited him on attaining Buddhahood and thus the Buddha was one who kept to promises. What is normally accepted as Brahama Sahampati, advised the Buddha that thee were people with little dust in their eyes, as the Buddha was doubtful if there were any such people, is a later Vedic interpolation, to keep Brahma Sahampati above the Buddha. In fact even today the Hindus of India revere and honour the Buddha as the ninth incarnation of God Vishnu, as Buddha Baghavan and the tenth incarnation is Bodhisatva Maitriya, future Buddha. These were just ruses to keep the Hindus in their own fold, created by the Vedic Hindus.

During the verge of Mahaparinirvana of the Buddha at Kusinara, wanderer Subhaddha who was staying at Kusinara, knowing the Buddha was attaining final Nibbana in the last watch of the night, went to the Mallians sala-tree grove and requested permission from Ven. Ananda to see the Buddha.

Ananda told him, that the Buddha was weak and refused permission on his two entreaties. The Buddha having over heard this pleading told Ananda, Enough Ananda, do not keep Subhadda out; let him see the Perfect One.

Whatever he may ask of me, he will ask it only for the sake of knowledge, not to cause trouble, and what I can tell him he will quickly understand.

Then the Ven Ananda told the wanderer Subhadda: Go, friend (ayudo) Subhadda, the Blessed One gives you permission. He went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him, and when the courteous formal talk was finished, he sat down at one side.

Then he said to the Blessed One; Master Gotama, there are these monks and brahamans, each with his community, with his group, leading a group, each renowned and famous philosopher reckoned by many as a saint - I mean Purana Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala, Ajita Kesakambala, Pakudha Kaccayana, Sanjaya Belathiputta and the Nigantha Nathaputta. Have they all had direct knowledge as they claim, or have none of them had direct knowledge, or have some of them had direct knowledge and some not?

Enough, Subhadda. Whether they have all had direct knowledge as they claim, or none of them have had direct knowledge, or some of them have had direct knowledge and some not, let that be. I shall teach you the Dhamma, Subhadda. Listen and attend carefully to what I shall say.

Even so, Lord he replied. Subhadda, in whatever Dhamma and Discipline (Vinaya) the Noble Eightfold Path is not found, there the (first) monk is not found, the second monk is not found, the third monk is not found, the fourth monk is not found.

The Noble Eightfold Path is found. In whatever Dhamma and Discipline (Vinaya) the Noble Eightfold Path is found, there the (first) monk is found, the second monk is found, the third monk is found, the fourth monk is found. The Noble Eightfold Path is found in this Dhamma and Discipline, Subhadda, and it is only here that the (first) monk is found, the second monk is found, the third monk is found, the fourth monk is found. Others doctrines are devoid of monks. And if these monks live rightly, the world will not be devoid of Arahants, of accomplished ones.

Then the wanderer Subhadda said, Magnificent Lord, magnificent Lord. The Dhamma has been made clear in many ways by the Blessed One, as though he were righting the overthrown, revealing the hidden, showing the way to one who is lost, holding up a lamp in the darkness for those with eyes to see visible forms. I go to the Blessed One for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Sangha of bhikkhus. I should like to receive the going forth and the admission from the Blessed One.

One who has already been a layman, Subhadda, and wants the going forth and the admission in this Dhamma and Discipline is usually put on probation for four months. At the end of the four months, if the bhikkhus are satisfied, they give him the going forth and admit him to the state of a bhikkhu.

But I know that there are personal exceptions here, said the Buddha further. Lord, if that is so, then let me put on probation for four years and at the end of four years, if the bhikkhus are satisfied, they will give me the going forth and admit me to the state of a bhikkhu, said Subhadda. But the Blessed One told the Venerable Ananda, Now, Ananda, give Subhadda the going forth Even so, Lord the Venerable Ananda replied.

Then the wanderer Subhadda said to the Venerable Ananda, It is gain for you, friend Ananda, it is a great gain that you have been anointed here in the Masters presence with the pupils anointing. And the wanderer Subaddha received the going forth under the Blessed One and he received the admission.

Then not long after his admission, dwelling done. withdrawn, diligent, ardent and self-controlled, the Venerable Subhadda, by realization himself with direct knowledge, here and now entered upon and dwelt in that supreme goal of the holy life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the house life into homelessness. He knew directly; Birth is exhausted, the holy life has been lived out, what was to be done is done, there is no more of this to come. And the Venerable Subhadda became one of the Arahants. He was the last of the Blessed Ones disciples to testify.

Then the Blessed One addressed the Venerable Ananda; Ananda you may think; The word of the Teacher is a thing of the past; now we have no more Teacher. But you should not regard it so. The Dhamma and Discipline taught by me and laid down for you are your Teacher after I am gone.

Up till now bhikkhus have addressed each other with the word friend (Ayuso), but it should not be done after I am gone. A senior bhikkhu should address a junior bhikkhu by his name or his family name, or as friend (Ayuso). A junior bhikkhu should address a senior bhikkhu as lord (Swamini) or as Venerable One (Pujyapadavahanse). This Sangha can, if it wishes, abolish the lesser and minor rules when I am gone.

The higher penalty should be imposed on the bhikkhu Channa when I am gone. (Channa was Prince Siddarthas groom who took him on horseback at night when the prince renounced household life at the age of 29. Because of this Chana even as a bhikkhu was proud, obstinate and intolerant of correction).

But, Lord, what is the higher penalty? Whatever the bhikkhu Channa wants, whatever he says, he should not be spoken to or advised or instructed by the Bhikkhus (Digha Nikaya 16). In the Suttas it is told how Channa repented after the Parinibbana of the Buddha and asked for help from the Arahant Ananda (Ananda became an Arahant two months twenty-nine days after the Parinibbana of the Buddha, namely a day before the First Buddhist Council convened by Arahant Maha Kassapa of 500 Arahants at Sattaparni caves in Rajgir (Rajagaha), and thus Arahant Ananda became the 500th Arhant to attend the First Council. As a result of that conversation with Arahant Ananda Channa became an Arahant (Samyutta Nikaya 22:90).

The Vajjian Confederacy was the first confederacy installed by the Licchchvi rulers at Vaishali which had an assembly of 7007 members at Vaishali (Vesali) was founded by them according to the Saptaaparahanidhamma (non degenerative governance expounded to them by the Buddha, namely, assemble in concord, rise in concord, do your duties as Vajjians in concord, avoid enacting the unenacted or abolishing existing enactments and proved in accordance with the ancient Vajjian laws as enacted, honour, respect, revere and venerate the Vajjian laws as enacted, honour, respect, revere and venerate the Vajjian eders and think they should be heeded, live without raping and abducting the women and girls of your clans, honour, respect, revere and venerate the Vajjian shrines both in town and country without allowing the lawful oblations, hitherto given and made, to lapse, provide lawful protection, defence and guarding providing among the Vajjians for Arahants so that Arahants who have not come to the realm may come and Arahants who have come may live happily (Digha Nikaya 16; Anguttara Nikaya 7:20).

The four monks, explained by the Blessed One to Subhadda, referred to in an earlier paragraph refers to the four stages of Arhantship, the Stream-winner (sovan), Once-returner (sakurdhagami), Non-returner (anagami) and Arahant. The ordination of layman as bhikkhus was sanctified by the Buddha to the monks in the following manner.

By now Bhikkhus who had set out to wander were bringing in from various quarters and from various countries men who wanted the going forth and the admission, so that they should be given to them by the Blessed One. This was troublesome for both the bhikkhus and those who wanted the going forth and the admission. The Blessed One considered the matter, and when it was evening, he summoned the bhikkhus on this account, for this reason. After giving a discourse on the Dhamma, he addressed them thus.

Bhikkhus, while I was alone in retreat this thought arose in my mind. Bhikkhus, are now bringing in from various quarters and from various countries men who want the going forth and the admission, so that these should be given to them by me. This is troublesome for both the bhikkhus and those who want the going forth and the admission. Why should I not now uthorize bhikkhus to give the going forth and the admission there in whatever quarter, in whatever country they happen to be? This in fact I allow you to do. And it should be done in this way. First the hair and beard should be shaved off. Then after putting on the yellow robe, the upper robe should be arranged on one shoulder and homage should be paid at the bhikkhus feet. Then kneeling with the hands held out palms together, this should be said. I go the refuge to the Buddha (Buddham Saranam gacchami); I go to the refuge of the Dhamma (Dhammam Saranam gachchami); I go for refuge to the Sangha (Sangham Saranam gachchami). Repeat for the second time.... for the third time..... I allow going forth and admission to be given by the Triple Gem (Trivida Ratna). Now when the Blessed One had spent the first Rains Retreat (Vassa) at Saranath, Varanasi, he addressed the bhikkhus thus; Bhikkhus, it is with ordered attention, with ordered effort, that I have reached and have realized the Supreme Deliverance. It is with ordered attention, with ordered effort, that you also, bhikkhus, have reached and have realized the Supreme Deliverance (Vinaya Mahavagga 1:7-20).

බිනර
අව අටවක

බිනර අව අටවක පෝය ඔක්තෝබර් 03 වන දා බදාදා පූර්ව භාග
04.18 ට ලබයි. 04 වන දා බ්‍රහස්පතින්දා පූර්ව භාග 03.09 දක්වා පෝය පවතී. සිල් සමාදන්වීම ඔක්තෝබර් 03 වන දා බදාදාය.

මීළඟ පෝය ඔක්තෝබර්
10 වන දා බදාදා ය.


පොහෝ දින දර්ශනය

Second Quarterඅව අටවක

ඔක්තෝබර් 03

New Moonඅමාවක

ඔක්තෝබර් 10

First Quarterපුර අටවක

ඔක්තෝබර් 19

Full Moonපසෙලාස්වක

ඔක්තෝබර් 25
 

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