Buddhism is all about Anicca, Dukkha
B.M. Seneviratna Bandara
Continued from 12.06.2010
The four Nobel Truths is the doctrine which does not
change from reality into any stated nature. To make life
happy first of all the realisation of nature of life and
samsara must be acquired. Next craving must be
eradicated. Likewise life must be spent correctly.
All the paths which the Buddha has taught to follow are
contained in the nobel Eight fold Path which is not
merely a super mundane one to realise Nibbana but which
also helps to succeed in the present life and makes
succeeding life happy. To get anything done a correct
understanding is necessary for which a good thought must
be acquired. It is then that speech, actions and
employment become good. A person can conceive wisdom, by
making a good effort and a mindfulness.
The Buddha has preached the Noble Eight Fold Path in one
order the seriality of which is very important. They are
important even in practical use. The Great One who
preached for 45 years based his discourses on
Dhammachakkappavattana Sutta which expounds the whole of
Buddhism. Although the Four Noble Truths cannot be
analysed it has been done so for purpose of
clarification to live in conformity with it. The primary
idea of not being extreme, which is the teaching of
Middle Path, can be made use of from personal life to
governing countries. Many politicians in the world today
who do not follow extreme political policies admit that
a good political ventilation can be had by not joining
political parties through a central policy. They try it.
The Middle Path teaches the primary idea it requires.
Craving motivates stealth. One who follows the Middle
Path succeeds in his living by neutralizing craving
which enables him to spend a consoled life in this
world, free from suffering. The Middle Path gives huge
advantages to maintain our personal as well as social
life successfully. The simple eight teachings which can
be obeyed in pursuance of the shallow meanings of those
eight folds can be used for building up a successful
living. There is no mundane welfare that cannot be got
by one who follows the Noble Eight Fold Path.
The only constant energy is the change. Impermanency is
the only constant nature in the world. Buddhism is the
four retention of mind (Satipattana) Sanskhara is merits
and demerits. Buddhism is an analytics. For complete
understanding of Buddhism and the reality of the
worldlings analysis is essential, Sanskhara being the
most important discourse among them. There is nothing in
the world that does not change. Whatever that has an
arising nature is all that has the ceasing nature. In
the absence of a changing cause and a cause that
changes, there does not exist a being who is organised
by cause of suffering in the world. With the creation of
any action, the cessation too takes place. The Buddha
pointed out to the humanity the suitable way for both
mundane and super mundane welfare.
Dependent Origination which is the Buddhist cause and
effect theory was discovered by the Buddha on the last
night of first week after attaining Buddhahood. It is a
cause of twelve links. Dependent Origination is the
creation by means of a cause. The Dependant Origination
which is a profound doctrine is a primary teaching in
Buddhism. The Buddha has preached that as the
communities embrace wrong views they cannot cross the
sansaric ocean until they realise Dependant Origination
and if one realise it he understands Dhamma by which he
realises Dependant Origination which means causality.
Buddhism analyses everything in the world including
property, individual and event founded on this
principle. This being thus comes to be. With the arising
of this, this arises. Not being this does not come to
be. With the cessation of this, this ceases. The Buddha
recollected that as the twelve reasons of suffering work
reciprocally suffering causes and it annihilates as a
result of their non-working.
The cause of suffering is known as direct order
(anuloma) while the indication of suffering is known as
reverse order (Patiloma) of Dependant Origination.
Dependant Origination which is everlasting and spreading
in the universe is the result of finding the causes of
sufferings by birth, decay and death of the beings. This
doctrine which operates both during the times that a
Buddha lives and not is realise and preached by Buddha
to the world-ling. It is in agreement with the Dependant
Origination that both the origin and cessation of
sorrows alias problems of both personal and social are
created with cause and secondary reasons.
Buddhism defines Kamma as the good or bad intentions.
Thoughts are called Kamma. Buddhism teaches that one
fifth of the things happening in this world is through
Kamma which is collected purposely through mind, body
and speech. Rebirth takes place as a result of Kamma
collected by an individual in this world in the absesnce
of which birth will not take place. Kamma is the seed.
Conception is its fruit. Sanskhara is merits and
demerits or Kamma. When Thodeiyaputra asked as to what
the reasons for variety of beings are, the Buddha
preached thus. Beings are owners, inheritors and causers
of Kamma which place them high and low. Various Kamma
which are motivated by intentions are caused by mind,
body and speech. Good deeds caused by mind, body and
speech are called merits which are initiated by three
good intentions called liberty, love and wisdom. Every
action done without lust, hate and ignorance is a
meritorious act while demeritorious Kamma are those that
are harmful to the doer as well as to the others. All
the Kamma are divided into two main parts called present
Kamma and past Kamma. Resulting of Kamma take place in
1. Getting conceptions in an existence; and
2. by getting results while maintaining life after
Kamma pursues and results an individual until he passes
away after attaining Arahantship. When a meritorious
deed is done, its result follows the doer like a shadow
and gives him happy result while the result of a
demeritorious deed follows the doer as the wheel that
follows the bull tied to the cart giving distress. Not
worrying to others is a merit while the working for the
benefit of others is a more powerful merit. The
employment of good deeds for one’s progress is a merit
which enables the individual to enjoy the results of
those deeds in this life itself. Likewise, he manages to
pave the way for getting the results of merit of deeds
done in the past births.
The discourse on Kamma which has 16 types is one of the
main teachings of Buddhism. Kamma means doing or action.
Everything thought or done and spoken is a deed. The
mind initiates action. The working of the mind is known
as intention (thinking). Intentions may be either good
or bad. Intention is known as Kamma. Chetanahan Bhikkave
Kamman Vadami, Chetaiva Kamman Karoti Kayena Vachaya
Manasa. Kammic intentions occur in meditation also. The
origination only of intentions can cause complete
demeritorious Kamma also into which fall greed, hatred
or aversion and wrong views. They are very powerful
Intentions occur in strings. Demetritorious Kamma result
in enhancing samsaric suffering while meritorious Kamma
help to cease samsaric suffering by giving happiness.
These two Kamma must be destroyed to get liberation from
samsaric suffering. Kamma which cause results orginate
through craving and ignorance of the Four Noble Truths.
As such Buddhism is a theory which teaches that Kamma
are caused by intentions and deeds. The Buddha admitted
the results of three sections namely past Kamma, present
Kamma and things caused by other outward reasons.
Buddhism teaches that an intelligent person can escape
from the results of some demerits and that there is room
for a tactless and foolish person to lose the results of
merits. Although the results of some demeritorious Kamma
can be escaped by good behavior results of all Kamma
cannot be evaded. To put sufferings to an end the cause
of both defilement and Kamma should be eradicted. The
three factors of defilement Kamma and results compose
personal life as cause and effect. The universe rests on
Kamma. So also is the mankind. Craving consciousness and
Kamma effect rebirth. Old Kamma are the six senses,
namely eye, ear, nose, tongue, mind and body. New Kamma
are intentions aroused by mind, body and speech.
Actually, the nature of both intentions and Kamma is the
same. Chetana and Chetaitva Kamma are there. The being
reaps as he has sown. Kamma have been categorised
according to the powerfulness of function, the time of
resulting, the place of resulting and the occasion.
The three characteristics are known as the three main
characteristics that exist in the world. They are
impermanency, suffering and not self. It has been
preached that these are natures common to every time and
place. An intelligent person can attain the path and
fruit by realising profoundly one of them.
In the same way, one cannot attain Arahantship without
realising at least one of them. When the worldling has
an understanding about the three characteristics he
moderately lives in accordance with the eight
vicissitudes. He will be courteous and pious. As all
animate and inanimate things change (impermanency) one
must act promptly. The self does not exist as one
wishes. Therefore, it is mentioned in Buddhism as “yan
aniccan tan dukkan” which means that an impermanent
thing is of a suffering character. And also “yandukkan
tan anatta” means that something sufferable is not self.
The eight aspects that the Buddha preached comprises
three words. They are anicca, dukkha, anatma which mean
that the whole of Buddhism is included in them.
May all beings minimise rebirth.
May all beings attain Nibbana.